A Bibliography of Convective Snow, Thundersnow,
and Related Topics
Altaratz, O., T. Reisin, and Z. Levin, 2005: Simulation of the electrification of winter thunderclouds using the three-dimensional Regional Atmospheric Modeling system (RAMS) model: Single cloud simulations. J. Geophys. Res., 110, D20205, doi:10.1029/2004JD005616.
Asuma, Y., K. Kikuchi, T. Taniguchi, S. Jujui, 1988: Vertical structures of the atmospheric electric potential gradient and the behavior of precipitation charges during snowfalls near the ground surface. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 66, 473-87.
Auer, A.H., 1987: An aid to forecasting heavy snowfall episodes. Natl. Wea. Dig., 12, 11-14.
Banacos, P. C., 2003: Short-range prediction of banded precipitation associated with deformation and frontogenetic forcing. Preprints, 10th Conference on Mesoscale Processes, Portland, OR, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM
Barthazy, E., and R. Schefold, 2001: A new ground-based optical instrument to measure snowflakes. Preprints, 30th Conf. on Radar Meteorology, Munich, Germany, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 545-47.
Beckman, S. K., 1986: Effects of convective thpe clouds on heavy snow as viewed by GOES satellite imagery. Preprints, 2nd Conf. on Satellite Meteorology and Remote Sensing Appl., Williamsburg, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 212-217.
Bennetts, D.A., and B.J. Hoskins, 1979: Conditional symmetric instability--A possible explanation for frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 105, 945-962.
-----------, and J. C. Sharp, 1982: The relevance of conditional symmetric instability to the prediction of mesoscale frontal rainbands. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 108, 595-602.
Black, R., and J. Hallett, 1998: The mystery of cloud electrification. American Scientist, 86, 526-534.
Bluestein, H., 1986: Fronts and jet streaks: A theoretical perspective. Mesoscale Meteorology and Forecasting, Peter Ray, Ed., Amer. Meteor. Soc., 173-215.
Bosart, L. F., and F. Sanders, 1986: Mesoscale structure in the megalopolitan snowstorm of 11-12 February 1983. Part III: A large-amplitude gravity wave. J. Atmos. Sci., 43, 924-39.
Bright, D. R., M. S. Wandishin, R. E. Jewell, and S. J. Weiss, 2005: A physically based parameter for lightning prediction and its calibration in ensemble forecasts. Preprints, Conf. on Meteor. Applications of Lightning Data, San Diego, CA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., CD-ROM, 4.3.
Brook, M., M. Nakano, P. Krehbiel and T. Takeuti, 1982: The electrical structure of the Hokuriku winter thunderstorms. J. Geophys. Res., 87, 1207-15.
-------, R. W. Henderson, and R. B. Pyle, 1989: Positive lightning strokes to ground. J. Geophys. Res., 94, 13,295-303.
Browne, R.F., and R.J. Younkin, 1970: Some relationships between 850-millibar lows and heavy snow occurrences over the central and eastern United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 98, 399-401.
Canovan, R. A., 1972: Snow accompanied by thunder. Weather, 27, 257-258.
Carlson, T.N., 1980: Airflow through mid-latitude cyclones and the comma cloud pattern. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 1498-1509.
Colman, B.R., 1990a: Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part I: A Climatology. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1103-1121.
---------, 1990b: Thunderstorms above frontal surfaces in environments without positive CAPE. Part II: Organization and instability mechanisms. Mon. Wea. Rev., 118, 1123-1144.
Cook, B. J. 1980: A snow index using 200MB warm advection. Natl. Wea. Dig. 5, 29-40.
Crocker, A.M., W.L. Godson, and C.M. Penner, 1947: Frontal contour charts. J. Meteor., 4, 95-99.
Curran, J.T., and A.D. Pearson, 1971: Proximity soundings for thunderstorms with snow. Preprints, 7th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Kansas City, MO, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 118-119.
Balasubramanian, G. and M. K. Yau, 1995: Explosive marine cyclogenesis in a three-layer model with a representation of slantwise convection: A sensitivity study. J. Atmos. Sci., 52, 533-50.
Brake, J. C., 1968: Electrification accompanying the melting of ice particles. Q. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 94, 176-91.
Elkins, H. A. 1987: Thunderstorms with snow: A comprehensive, empirical study of their occurrence, development and structure. M. S. Thesis, Saint Louis University, 79 pp.
Emanuel, K.A., 1983: On assessing local CSI from atmospheric soundings. Mon. Wea. Rev., 111, 2016-2033.
----------, 1983: The lagrangian parcel bynamics of moist symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci. 40, 2368-76.
----------, 1985: Frontal circulations in the presence of small moist symmetric stability. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1062-1071.
Foster, H., 1950: An unusual observation of lightning. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 31, 140-41.
Fujita, T., and K. Tsuchiya, 1966: A proposed mechanism of snowstorm mesojet over Japan under the influence of the winter monsoon. SMRP Research Paper No. 56, Dept. of the Geophysical Sciences, The University of Chicago. 22 pp.
Fukao, S., Y. Maekawa, Y. Sonoi, and F. Yoshino, 1991: Dual polarization radar observation of thunderclouds on the coast of the Sea of Japan in the winter season. Geophys. Res. Lett., 18, 179-82.
Godson, W.L., 1951: Synoptic properties of frontal surfaces. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 77, 633-653.
Grumm, R. H. and D. J. Nicosia, 1997: WSR-88D observations of mesoscale precipitation bands over Pennsylvania. Nat. Wea. Dig., 21, 10-23.
Guinan, P. E., 1988: A case study of an intense south Texas snowstorm during January 12-13, 1985. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 103 pp.
Henry, N. L., 2000: A static stability index for low-topped convection. Wea. and Forecast, 15, 246-54.
Holle, R. L., and A. I. Watson, 1996: Lightning during two central U. S. winter precipitation events. Wea. Forecast. 11, 599-614.
--------, J.V. Cortinas, and C.C. Robbins, 1998: Winter thunderstorms in the United States. Preprints, 16th Conf. on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 298-300.
Hunter, S.M., S.J. Underwood, R.L. Holle, and T.L. Mote, 2001: Winter lightning and heavy frozen precipitation in the southeast United States. Wea. Forecasting, 16, 478-490.
Janish, P. R., C. A. Crisp, J. V. Cortinas, R. L. Holle, and R. H. Johns, 1996: Development of an ingredients based appoach to forecasting hazardous winter weather in an operational environment. Preprints, 15th Conference on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Norfolk, VA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 1-7.
Jurewicz, M. L., and M. S. Evans, 2004: A comparison of two banded, heavy snowstorms with very different synoptic settings. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 1011-1028.
Kitagawa, N., and K. Michimoto, 1994: Meteorological and electrical aspects of winter thunderclouds. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 10, 713-21.
Kocin, R. J., L. W. Uccellini, J. W. Zach, and M. L. Kaplan, 1985: A mesoscale numerical forecast of an intense convective snowburst anlong the east coast. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 66, 1412-24.
MacGorman, D. R., and W. D. Rust, 1998: The Electrical Nature of Storms. Oxford University Press, 422 pp.
Magono, C., T. Endoh, and T. Taniguchi, 1982: The mirror image relation in the vertical distributions of electric field and precipitation charge in winter thunderclouds. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 61, 1188-93.
--------, T. Endoh, and T. Shigeno, 1983a: The electrical structure of snow clouds. Part I: Relationship to their precipitation-physical properties. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 67, 325-38.
--------, H. Sakamoto, T. Endoh, and T. Taniguchi, 1984: The electrical structure of snow clouds. Part II: Vertical distribution of precipitation charge. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 62, 323-34.
Market, P.S., C. E. Halcomb, and R. L. Ebert, 2002: A climatology of thundersnow events over the contiguous United States. Wea. Forecasting, 17, 1290-1295.
Martin, J. E., 1998a: The structure and evolution of a continental winter cyclone. Part I: Frontal structure and the occlusion process. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 303-328.
--------, 1998b: The structure and evolution of a continental winter cyclone. Part II: Frontal forcing for an extreme snow event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 329-348.
--------, 1999a: Quasi-geostropic forcing of ascent in the occluded sector of cyclones and the trowal airstream. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 70-88.
--------, 1999b: The separate roles of geostropic vorticity and deformation in the mid-latitude occlusion process. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2404-2418.
McCann, D. W., 1995: Three-dimensional computations of equivalent potential vorticity. Wea. Forecasting, 10, 798-802.
Medlin, J. M., 1993: A meteorological analysis of an "instability burst" that produced short-term heavy convective snow in the lower Ohio River Valley. Postprint, Third National Heavy Precipitation Workshop, NOAA Tech. Memo., NWS ER-87, 365-384.
Michimoto, K., 1991: A study of radar echoes and their relation to lightning discharge of thunderclouds in the Hokuriku district. Part I: Observations and analysis of thunderclouds in summer and winter. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 69, 327-66.
----------, 1993: A study of radar echoes and their relation to lightning discharges of thunderclouds in the Hokuriku district. Part II: Observation and analysis of "single-flash" thunderclouds in midwinter. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 71, 195-204.
Miloshevich, L. M., and A. J. Heymsfield, 1997: A balloon-borne continuous cloud particle replicator for measuring vertical profiles of cloud microphysical properties: Instrument design, preformance, and collection efficiency analysis. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol., 14, 753-68.
Moore, J. T., and P.D Blakely, 1988: The role of frontogenetical forcing and conditional symmetric instability in the Midwest snowstorm of 30-31 January 1982. Mon. Wea. Rev., 116, 2155-2171.
---------, and T.E. Lambert, 1993: The use of equivalent potential vorticity to diagnose regions of conditional symmetric instability. Wea. Forecasting, 8, 301-308.
---------, A.C. Czarnetzki, and P.S. Market, 1998: Heavy precipitation associated with elevated thunderstorms formed in a convectively unstable layer aloft. Meteorol. Apps., 5, 373-384.
---------, C. E. Graves, S. Ng, and J. L. Smith, 2005: A process-oriented methodology toward understanding the organization of an extensive mesoscale snowband: A diagnostic case study of 4-5 December 1999. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 35-50.
Moore, P.K., and V.P. Idone, 1999: Cloud-to-ground lightning at low surface temperatures. Proceedings, 11th International Conference on Atmospheric Electricity, Guntersville, AL, NASA, Marshall Space Flight Center, 472-475.
Nakono, M., 1979: The cloud discharge in winter thunderstorms of the Hokuriku Coast. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 57, 444-51.
Nicosia, D.J., and R.H. Grumm, 1999: Mesoscale band formation in three major northeastern United States snowstorms. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 346-368.
Novak, D. R., L. F. Bosart, D. Keyser, and J. S. Waldstreicher, 2004: An observational study of cold season-banded precipitation in northeast U.S. cyclones. Wea. Forecasting, 19, 346-368.
Orville, R. E., 1990: Winter lightning among the east coast. Geophys. Res. Lett., 17, 713-715.
---------, 1993: Cloud-to-ground lightning in the blizzard of '93. Geophys. Res. Lett., 20, 1367-1370.
Penner, C.M., 1955: A three-front model for synoptic analyses. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 81, 89-91.
Persson, P. O., and T. T. Warner 1993: Nonlinear hydrostatic conditional symmeteric instability: implications for numerical weather prediction. Mon Wea. Rev., 121, 1821-33.
Rakov, V. A., and M. A. Uman, 2003: Lightning: Physics and Effects. Cambridge University Press, 687 pp. NOTE: Especially Chapter 8, Winter Lightning in Japan.
Sanders, F., and L.F. Bosart, 1985: Mesoscale structure in the megalopolitan snowstorm of 11-12 February 1983. Part I: Frontogenetical forcing and symmetric instability. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1050-1061.
--------------------, 1986: Frotogenesis and symmetric stability in a major New England snowstorm. Mon. Wea. Rev., 18, 1847-62.
Schneider, R.S., 1990: Large-amplitude mesoscale wave disturbances within the intense Midwest extratropical cyclone of 15 December 1987. Wea. Forecasting, 5, 533-558.
Schultz, D.M., 1999: Lake-effect snowstorms in northern Utah and western New York with and without lightning. Wea. Forecasting, 14, 1023-1031.
---------, and P.N. Schumacher, 1999: The use and misuse of conditional symmetric instability. Mon. Wea. Rev., 127, 2709-2732.
Seltzer, M.A., R.E. Passarelli, and K.A. Emanuel, 1985: The possible role of symmetric instability in the formation of precipitation bands. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 2207-2219.
Shepherd, T. R., W. D. Rust, and T. C. Marshall, 1996: Electric fields and charges near 0 degree C in stratiform clouds. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 919-38.
Steigerwaldt, H., 1986: Deformation zones and heavy precipitation. Natl. Wea. Dig., 11, 15-20.
Stuart, N., 2001: Multi-dimensional analysis of an extreme thundersnow event during the 30 December 2000 snowstorm. Prerpints, 18th Conf. on Weather Analysis and Forecasting, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 223-226.
Sumner, H. J., 2001: A comperhensive evaluation of cool-season elevated convection in the central United States. M. S. Thesis, Saint Louis University, 132pp.
Takahasi, T., T. Tajiri, and Y. Sonoi, 1999: Charges on graupel and snow crystals and the electrical structure of winter thunderstorms. J. Atmos. Sci., 56, 1561-1578.
Takeuti, T., M. Nakano, M. Nagatani, and H. Nakada, 1973: On lightning discharges in winter thunderstorms. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 51, 494-96.
--------, -------, M. Brook, D.J. Raymond, and P. Krehbiel, 1978: The anomalous winter thunderstorms of the Horurika coast. J. Geo. Res., 83, 2385-2394.
Thorpe, A.J., and K.A. Emanuel, 1985: Frontogenesis in the presence of small stability to slantwise convection. J. Atmos. Sci., 42, 1809-1824.
Trapp, R. J., D. M. Schultz, A. V. Ryzhkov, and R. L. Holle, 2001: Multiscale structure and evolution of an Oklahoma winter precipitation event. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 486-501.
Van Den Broeke, M. S., D. M. Schultz, R. H. Johns, J. S. Evans, and J. E. Hales, 2005: Cloud-to-ground lightning production in strongly forced, low-instability convective lines associated with damging wind. Wea. Forecasting, 20, 517-530.
Weismuller, J. L., and S. M. Zubrick, 1998: Evaluation and application of conditional symmetric instability, equivalent potential vorticity, and frontogenetic forcing in an operational forecast environment. Wea. Forecasting, 13, 84-101.
Wetzel, S. 2000: Investigation of the dynamical and thermodynamical ingredients for mid-latitude winter season precipitation. M. S. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 158pp.
Williams, E.R., 1988: Anomalous electrification in winter storms. Preprints, 15th Conf. on Severe Local Storms, Baltimore, MD, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 304-308.
Zipser, E. J., and K. R. Lutz, 1994: The vertical profile of radar reflectivity of convective cells: A strong indicator of storm intensity and lightning probability? Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 122, 1751-1759.
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